Microphones: Polar pattern / Directionality

2.) Polar pattern / Directionality

The polar pattern of a microphone is the sensitivity to sound relative to the direction or angle from which the sound arrives, or easier worded how well the microphone “hears“ sound from different directions. The most common types of directionality are: Omnidirectional, Cardioid and Supercardioid




Microphone Cardioid Pattern



Cardioid

A cardioid microphone has the most sensitivity at the front and is least sensitive at the back. It isolates from unwanted ambient sound and is much more resistant to feedback than omnidirectional microphones. That makes a cardioid microphone particularly suitable for loud stages.




Microphone Supercardioid Pattern



Supercardioid

Supercardioid microphones offer a narrower pickup than cardioids and a greater rejection of ambient sound. But they also have some pickup directly at the rear. Hence it is important to place monitor speakers correctly. Supercardioids are most suitable when single sound sources need to be picked up in loud environments. They are the most resistant to feedback.

 




Microphone Omniderectional Pattern



Omnidirectional

The omnidirectional microphone has equal output or sensitivity at all angles, this means it picks up sound from all directions. Therefore the microphone has not to be aimed in a certain direction which is helpful especially with lavalier microphones. A disadvantage is that an omni cannot be aimed away from undesired sources such as PA speakers which may cause feedback.




Microphone polar pattern figure of eight



Figure of Eight (bidirectional)

A microphone with a figure of eight polar pattern picks up the sound from in front of the microphone and from the rear but not the side (90 degree angle). Microphones with this Figure of Eight polar pattern are typically ribbon or Large Diaphragm Microphones.




INFO: Proximity Effect

Every directional microphone (i.e. cardioid, supercardioid) has a so-called proximity effect. This is created when the microphone moves closer to the sound source resulting in an increase in bass response and, hence, warmer sound. Professional singers often work with this effect. To test this out, experiment with bringing the microphone closer to your lips when singing and listen for the change in sound.

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Mics with cardioid polar pattern

PGA58
PGA27
Beta 87C

Mics with supercardioid polar pattern

Beta 58A
super_55_1_cols
Super 55
Beta 52A

Mics with omnidirectional polar pattern

Beta 53
KSM141 Instrument Microphone
KSM141

Miics with bidirectional polar pattern

KSM313/NE
KSM353/ED

Symbols for Polar Patterns

Symbol Polar Pattern

 Cardioid

 Supercardioid

 Figure of Eight

 Omnidirectional

 Halfcardioid

 Hypercardioid